Laid down 12 Declaunched 20 Maycommissioned 14 March Fitted for rubberized flight deck trials
Development[ edit ] InCaptain M. These ships, which were not strictly conversions but brand-new grain ships that had not yet been laid down, would eventually enter service as Empire MacAlpine and Empire MacAndrew respectively.
By late September it was finally agreed that tanker-MACs could be operated safely subject to various limitations about the cargoes they would be allowed to carry. Four new-build tankers were scheduled for conversion but work on these did not start until May Additional hulls were still needed, however, and it was decided that existing tankers would have to be withdrawn from trade.
Newton could be converted to a MAC under British command.
The initial response was not helpful with Norway insisting on financial arrangements that War Transport officials described Aircraft operational concept "wholly unreasonable as between allies", but although these were later ameliorated, the proposal eventually foundered because the design effort was judged too much for what would have been a one-off conversion.
The Netherlands authorities approved the British request but on condition that the ships, as Aircraft operational concept, would fly the Dutch flag and be under Dutch civilian command to which the Admiralty, citing potential language difficulties, only reluctantly agreed.
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The hybrid nature of the MACs raised from the outset the question of whether they would be commissioned warships like the new escort carriersor if they would operate as merchant ships under the Red Ensign like the earlier CAM ships.
Serious reservations about the proposed civilian status were raised, however, by Foreign Office officials, who were concerned that the ships would be de facto warships under international law but, without the protection afforded by the Hague Convention which applied only to members of the armed forces, their civilian crews would be liable to be treated as unlawful combatants, or francs-tireurs.
The Foreign Office reluctantly agreed that the MACs would have to operate under the Red Ensign, provided that the merchant seamen and their unions were made aware of the risks involved, and that every possible precaution would be taken to ensure that the men did not fall into enemy hands.
The space immediately under the flight deck was utilised for the arrester gear mechanisms, four wires to each MAC with an additional unit fitted to the tankers to operate the trickle wire and safety barrier.
Less apparent modifications included; accommodation for crew about 50 more than normal ; improved internal subdivision; additional ventilation, including exhaust arrangements that could be adjusted to vent to the leeward side; changes to lifeboat positions; and magazines for the safe stowage of bombs, depth charges, ammunition and pyrotechnics.
Although capable of operating four aircraft, tanker MACs normally embarked three, which all had to be kept on deck: Empire MacKendrick which was originally to have been named Empire MacKenzie had the unusual distinction of being renamed while still under construction in tribute to HMS Audacitywhose captain, Commander D.
McKendrick RN, had been killed when she was sunk on convoy escort duty in Aviation arrangements[ edit ] Fairey Swordfish at an airshow in The Director of Trade Division, who had overall responsibility for coordination within the Admiralty, envisaged forming a new headquarters organisation to oversee MAC aviation.
The flight deck was not much wider than the Swordfish wing span, and a Swordfish fully loaded with rockets and depth charges might require rocket-assisted take-off gear RATOG to launch in unfavorable wind conditions.
The tankers were capable of routinely carrying four aircraft and the Dutch MACs Gadila and Macoma did so on a number of occasions, while the only report of four aircraft on board a British tanker related to an emergency diversion.
In addition to the air party, they carried extra Merchant Navy radio officers, engineer officers to maintain and operate the arrester gearcatering staff and, because the total number of crew would exceeda doctor, as required by the Merchant Shipping Act.
The air party were responsible for flying and supporting the aircraft. Merchant ship masters at a pre-convoy conference are said to have cheered when told that a MAC ship would be sailing with the convoy. MAC Ships[ edit ] New-build grain carriers[ edit ] Approximately 8, tons deep load, 12 knots, 4 aircraft, crewentered service April - March Equipped with hangar and lift.Lilium enables you to travel 5 times faster than a car by introducing the world’s first all-electric vertical take-off and landing jet: an air taxi for up to 5 people.
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