Nineteenth century historian Francis Parkmanthe first to research these events, described "the shameful plan of infecting the Indians" as "detestable". According to biological warfare expert Mark WheelisEcuyer considered concealing the event and acknowledged the deed in his ledgers only after learning that his superiors were ordering the same course of action. One historian says that though blankets containing smallpox were distributed to Native Americans by the Europeans, they may have been given with good will and intentions, instead of for the purpose of disseminating disease, contrary to what was clearly recorded in the trade ledgers and personal journals.
Diphtheria The pseudomembrane of diphtheria may cover a wide area. It is formed from waste products and proteins.
The bacteria secrete a powerful toxin that causes damage to body tissues. Early symptoms of diphtheria are similar to those of a common cold.
They include sore throat, loss of appetite, and fever. As the disease progresses, the most notable feature of diphtheria infection may emerge: The pseudomembrane is formed from waste products and proteins related to the toxin secreted by the bacteria.
The pseudomembrane sticks to tissues and may obstruct breathing. Transmission Diphtheria is transmitted from person to person, usually via respiratory droplets.
An infected person, unless treated with antibiotics, is infectious for two to three weeks. Treatment and Care Diphtheria treatment involves use of antibiotics to kill the diphtheria bacteria plus antitoxin to neutralize the toxins secreted by the bacteria.
Diphtheria patients are usually kept in isolation until they are no longer capable of infecting others, usually about 48 hours after antibiotic treatment begins. Complications The diphtheria toxin may travel to the heart, muscle, kidneys, and liver, where it may temporarily or permanently damage these organs.
Complications from diphtheria may include myocarditis damage to the heart muscleneuritis inflammation of nerves, which may contribute to nerve damage, paralysis, respiratory failure, and pneumoniaairway obstruction, and ear infection.
Diphtheria once was a major cause of illness and death among children.
The United States recorded a high ofcases of diphtheria inresulting in 15, deaths a case-fatality ratio of 7. Diphtheria was the third leading cause of death in children in England and Wales in the s. Diphtheria is extremely rare in the United States today; between andno cases of diphtheria were reported to public health officials.
One case was provisionally reported in Available Vaccines and Vaccination Campaigns Immunization for diphtheria is accomplished with a toxoid a modified version of the diphtheria toxin.
Diphtheria toxoid is not given as a single injection, but rather is combined with tetanus toxoid and, often, pertussis vaccine in a preparation called Tdap, DTaP, Td, or DT.
Since the introduction of effective immunization, starting in the s, diphtheria rates have dropped dramatically in the United States and other countries that vaccinate widely. Inthe reach of diphtheria immunization expanded when the World Health Organization included diphtheria toxoid in its list of recommended immunizations for its Expanded Programme on Immunization for developing countries.
Between andno cases of diphtheria were recorded in the United States. However, the disease continues to play a role globally. In4, cases of diphtheria were reported worldwide, which is likely an underestimate of the actual number of cases.
Vaccination Recommendations The current U.
All diphtheria immunizations for children are given in an injection combined with tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine known as DTaP. Adults receive diphtheria toxoid in combination with a tetanus toxoid booster, which is recommended every ten years.
The adult product can protect against tetanus and diphtheria a vaccine known as Td or tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis a vaccine known as Tdap. More Information For more information on diphtheria and its history, see the Diphtheria Timeline.
Sources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Public Health Foundation, In the 5 clinical trials reported in this issue, disease in Germany, 22 with a reduction in the prevention of Hib colonization 23 and with an increase in invasive Hib disease in the United Kingdom once the herd effect of the mass catch-up immunization campaign had waned.
24,25 After introduction of routine meningococcal serogroup C. SECOND THOUGHTS ON DISEASE A Controversy and Bechamp Revisited. by Drs Kalokerinos & Dettman © Introduction The Closed Mind of Medicine An Australia Experience Part I A Supplemental Disease Model.
Update on Adult Immunization Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) This statement on adult immunization is a supplement to the "General Recommendations on Immunization" of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) (1) and updates the previous supplement published in September Announcement: Special discount on Publication Charge: Special discount on Article Processing Charge (Publication charge) has been announced.
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Progress against vaccine-preventable diseases over the long run in the US. The visualization below shows the reduction in cases and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States after the introduction of each vaccine. One type of diphtheria affects the throat and sometimes the tonsils.
Another type, more common in the tropics, causes ulcers on the skin. Diphtheria affects people of all ages, but most often it strikes unimmunized children. In temperate climates, diphtheria tends to occur during the colder months.