A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter.
Most probiotics are bacteria, which are small, single-celled organisms. Bacteria are categorized by scientists with genus, species and strain names. Sometimes companies also develop a marketing name for probiotic strains. Back to top What Makes a Probiotic? The requirements for a microbe to be considered a probiotic are simple.
acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology contains 46 chapters on bacteria including structure-function, growth, metabolism, interactions with humans, pathogenesis and medically-important species. Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management mtb15.com can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.. There are three basic strategies for.
The microbe must be alive when administered, must be documented to have a health benefit and must be administered at levels shown to confer the benefit. The strain should be deposited in an internationally recognized culture collection so that scientists are able to replicate published research on the strain and to serve as a reference strain.
Appropriate in vitro and animal assessments must be conducted to better understand the physiological attributes of the strain. However, the choice of what assessments are used should be based on assessments that are relevant to the probiotic function in the target host.
Care must be taken to not overextend conclusions from in vitro and animal tests that have not been validated and shown to have relevance in the target host. Before use, the safety ref of the microbe must be fully considered.
Properly controlled studies that document a health benefit in the target host must be conducted. An efficacious dose of the viable probiotic must be present in the final product through the end of shelf life.
Those with some familiarity with this field may notice that this list of requirements does not include attributes such as ability to adhere to intestinal cells, resistance to bile and acid, production of bacteriocins, antipathogenic activity, human origin, survival through intestinal transit, among others.
This is because the array of potential health targets, hosts, and delivery methods are so diverse that any characteristics beyond those listed above are important for only a subset of probiotics, or because it is not clear if these assessments are truly predictive of in vivo functionality.
For example, sometimes it is claimed that probiotics must survive intestinal transit to be effective. Although there is little doubt that the ability of probiotics to grow and metabolize as they transit the intestinal tract can contribute to health benefits, there are also cases where this may not be necessary.
A health benefit of this type would not require that the probiotic survive through the intestine. At a minimum, probiotic products should be safe, effective, and should maintain their effectiveness and potency through the end of product shelf life.
This requires a responsible approach both by the producer and the consumer. The producer must identify strains and conditions of storage that will assure consumers that the probiotic will stay alive at efficacious levels through the end of shelf life.
Back to top Role of Probiotics in Health For centuries, folklore suggested that fermented dairy products containing live active cultures are healthful.
Recent controlled scientific investigation supports these traditional views, suggesting that probiotics can be a valuable part of a healthy diet. Probiotics are not essential for a healthy diet, but some compelling health benefits have been linked to some strains.
These are discussed under Health Effects of Probiotics. In addition, the emergence of some new public health risks suggests an important role for effective probiotics in the mitigation of some illnesses. For example, the ability of probiotic bacteria to support the immune system could be important to the elderly or other people at risk for contracting common infectious diseases.
It is important that immune compromised individuals ask their doctor before taking any dietary supplement, including probiotics. Some infections once thought self-limiting or readily treatable with antibiotics, are now recognized as more serious health threats.
Bacterial vaginosis used to be considered just an annoyance. Now we know it is associated with low birth weight infants and increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
Multiple antibiotic resistances are a continual threat in the battle against once-treatable infections. And in non-industrialized nations, infections such as rotavirus claim the lives of hundreds of thousands of infants yearly.
Prevention of infections before they occur is clearly the better alternative. Certain probiotics may be a safe, cost-effective approach that adds a barrier against or resistance to microbial infection. Back to top How Probiotics Work To understand how probiotics work, it is important to understand a little about the microbiology and physiology of the human gastrointestinal tract ref.
We once thought babies were sterile until birth, but evidence now exists that live microbes are associated with the placenta. Microbes associated with the human body amount to aboutor ,, bacterial cells. Other microbes including viruses, helminths and Archae are also abundant.
In addition to this very large number of bacteria, a diverse variety of types of bacteria.Biological Weapons. Biological weapons are toxic materials produced from pathogenic organisms (usually microbes) or artificially manufactured toxic substances that are used to intentionally interfere with the biological processes of a host.
The word bacteria is the plural of the New Latin bacterium, which is the latinisation of the Greek βακτήριον (bakterion), the diminutive of βακτηρία (bakteria), meaning "staff, cane", because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped.. Origin and early evolution. Why are viruses important?
Viruses cause many diseases of international importance. Amongst the human viruses, smallpox, polio, influenza, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-AIDS), measles and the SARS coronavirus are particularly well known.
Biological development, the progressive changes in size, shape, and function during the life of an organism by which its genetic potentials (genotype) are translated into functioning mature systems (phenotype).Most modern philosophical outlooks would consider that development of some kind or other characterizes all things, in both the physical and biological worlds.
acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.
Microbiologist Job Description, Career as a Microbiologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job.